Assessing and managing eye injuries pubmed central pmc. Only ocular condition where history taking and examination should be delayed. If you or a coworker injure your eye, follow these important care and treatment guidelines for eye injuries. Seek immediate emergency medical care after you have rinsed the eye any time an eye is exposed to a chemical. This patient had a penetrating eye injury with vitreous loss. Ocular chemical injuries are a true ocular emergency and require immediate and intensive evaluation and treatment. Immediately protect the eye with a plasticmetal shield and give tetanus toxoid. However, safety experts and eye doctors believe the right eye protection could have lessened the severity or even prevented 90% of these eye injuries. The intraocular pressure may increase in the acute phase and a lens extraction may be indicated. How to treat an eye injury first aid training st john ambulance duration.
See what you know about the first aid treatment of eye injuries and head trauma by completing this quiz and. Review of the first edition of the eye emergency manual eem has been oversighted by the eem steering committee chaired by dr ralph. Learn about chemical eye burns from alkalis, acids, or irritants, and find out what to do in this medical emergency. Chemical injury to the eye kadrmas eye care new england.
The pain is aggravated by blinking or moving the eye. Most chemical injuries to the eyes will cause mild irritation and can be resolved by flushing the eye out with water. Started in 1995, this collection now contains 6767 interlinked topic pages divided into a tree of 31 specialty books and 732 chapters. Chemical injury to the eye is serious and can threaten your vision.
Deformed eye due to abrupt globe rupture after walking into a door. Stick injury is common in children and farmers, sometimes causing a penetrating injury that can result in the affected eye quickly becoming infected. Breakage of one of the small blood vessels in the white sclera of the eye, often due to minor injury. Workplace eye injuries send 300,000 people to the er each year nationwide, according to the cdc. A chemical injury to your eyes or to your childrens eyes can be vision threatening.
Eye injuries are almost as great a danger to bystanders as the people using dangerous tools or chemicals in the home. Blood in the white of the eye subconjunctival hemorrhage causes. The patient had a corneal graft in the left eye that ruptured due to blunt trauma. As expected, 40% of onthejob eye injuries happen in the expanding fields of construction, mining and manufacturing. Concentrated fluorescein is dark orange but turns bright green under blue light after dilution. Modern molecular biology techniques help to study indepth the basic mechanism of photochemical damage of the retina and to develop strategies of neuroprotection. Chemical injuries to the eye constitutes an ophthalmic emergency, due to the potential for permanent visual impairment and threat to the structural integrity of the eye.
Alkalis more dangerous than acids as they penetrate deeper into the ocular surface irrigation should commence prior to detailed history takingexamination evert and sweep under eyelid early. Prevent blindness america reports that 90 percent of the more than 2,000 eye injuries occurring each day are preventable. Good eye protection is just as important for those watching you work as for the workers themselves. The severity of the injury relates directly to the duration, the type of the chemical, and the deviation of the corrosive substance from the physiological ph. Removing the offending agent promoting ocular surface healing controlling inflammation support of reparative processes prevention. Mild burns will produce conjunctivitis while more severe burns may cause the cornea to turn white. Chemical injuries to the eyes national health portal of. The onset of pain occurs either immediately after the injury or within the first twentyfour hours. Read about common causes, prevention, first aid, and other treatments. The serious nature of alkali burns of the eye was first emphasized in 18 by george beer, who stated. Ocular and periocular injury are the most common reasons for eyerelated emergency department visits.
Treating acute chemical injuries of the cornea american. Alkali injuries cause liquefaction necrosis, which causes cells to become less solid. When flushing eyes, place injureddamaged eye down and flush from medial aspect. If padding is used, it must not place pressure on the globe. Improvements in the understanding of the pathophysiology of. Ansiapproved safety glassesand other personal protective equipment specified in the standard operating procedures sopsare essential whenever working with hazardous materials. Chemical injuries to the eye represent one of the true ophthalmic emergencies, wherein time is truly critical. Sops also indicate other precautions that must be followed to ensure safety, such as performing work with. Most often, the patient gives a history of a liquid or a gas being splashed or sprayed into the eyes or of particles falling into the eyes. Proper management in the acute setting as well as followup by an ophthalmologist is crucial in limiting adverse. Since permanent damage can occur in less than five minutes, this is an ocular emergency that requires immediate treatment. Acid, alkali, chemical burns, eye, injury, ocular, treatment.
Approximately 90% of sportsrelated eye injuries can be prevented with simple. Symptoms and signs include eye pain, tearing, and eye redness. Chemical injuries of the eyesignssymptomstypesgrading. Chemical exposure to any part of the eye or eyelid may result in a chemical eye burn. The clinical bottom line is that there is no evidence showing whether litmus paper is accurate in assessing eye ph. Query the patient regarding the specific nature of the chemical and the mechanism of injury eg, simple splash vs highvelocity blast. A chemical eye injury is an injury to the eye caused by a liquid that is either too high or too low on the ph scale. Age and consumer productrelated eye injuries in the united states. Penetrating eye injuries, including corneal wounds and corneal and lens lacerations, are common. Simply using the proper eye protection on the job could prevent thousands of eye injuries each year. Eye safety ataglance protecting your vision at work page 6 225 reinekers lane, suite 700 alexandria, va 22314 p. Physical and chemical injuries to eyes and eyelids. Delaying medical attention can result in permanent vision loss or blindness. Chemical eye injury are due to either an acidic or alkali substance getting in the eye.
The first and most important step in management of an acute ocular chemical splash injury is copious irrigation. For one, the worker may lean in closer in order to better see what he or she is doing, which could result in an eye injury. What is the treatment for an eye injury from chemical exposure. This article discusses the basic science associated with a chemical eye injury caused by an alkaline substance. It uses the case of mr p who presented to an ophthalmic emergency department having sustained an injury caused by wet plaster having fallen into his eye, to link the basic science to the care and treatment of a patient. Severe injury may result in widespread damage to the ocular surface epithelium. Both blunt and perforating injury may cause a cataract requiring extraction, either very soon after injury if it is causing complications, or later when the eye is quiet and recovered from the injury. Since prevention is the best cure, you should use extreme caution when working with any type of material that contains chemicals. Lesson learned chemical explosion causes eye injury. This article is from october 2012 and may contain outdated material. Secondly, a worker with uncorrected vision may make a miscalculation due to not being able to see, resulting in mistakes, accidents or injuries to other parts of the body. In many cases, prompt and thorough rinsing of the eye with saline or fresh water dramatically reduces the risk of injury and longterm damage. About 15%20% of burns to the face involve at least one eye.
Management treatment of chemical injuries to the eye requires medical and surgical intervention, both acutely and in the long term, for maximal visual rehabilitation. Stronger agents such as acids can cause longterm structural damage to the eye, resulting in visual impairment. Let us understand the various aspects of chemical injuries of the eye and be aware of their signs and symptoms, types, grading, treatment and prevention. This page includes the following topics and synonyms. No pain, no vision loss, no blood in the irispupil area. At home, the patient can perform this irrigation in the shower or using an outdoor hose, or at the workplace using a sink or designated eye wash station. Chemical exposure to any part of the eye or eyelid can cause permanent damage. Ophthalmologic approach to chemical burns clinical. Typically there is a sensation of something in the eye, pain, and photophobia. Chemical injuries of the eye clinical practice guideline. Vision may be affected if the foreign body is in the visual axis.
Eye injuries caused by chemical burns send tens of thousands of people in the u. Chemical injuries to the eye can produce extensive damage to the ocular surface and anterior segment leading to visual impairment and disfigurement. A chemical injury of the eye presents a genuine, acute emergency and requires immediate evaluation and management. The sequelae of an ocular burn can be severe and particularly challenging to manage. Chemical alkali and acid injury of the conjunctiva and. Chemical injuries cause tissue destruction created from a wave of strongly dissociated ions flooding the eyelid andor tear. Consult with receiving facility or rsq as to flight restrictions.
Eye injury epidemiology and prevention of ophthalmic injuriesferenc kuhn, viktoria mester. This, ideally, should begin wherever the injury took place. Introduction one of the true ophthalmic emergencies. Litmus paper is an easy way to rule out the diagnosis by verifying that the ph is within the normal range of 7. While almost any chemical can cause ocular irritation, serious damage generally results from either strongly basic alkaline compounds or. Grinding, spraying, sanding, chiseling, woodworking or any other activity that might cause large fragments or small particles to fly through the air and into. Chemical injuries of the eye are fairly common and often present as medical emergencies. There is an incidence of 1420 per 100,000 among us military personnel, whereas studies of us civilian populations vary from 29. What is the treatment for an eye injury from chemical. No studies were found that addressed this clinical question. Workers and employers should know how to recognize an eye injury and get help right away.
The outlook for recovery from chemical injury varies depending on the nature and extent of the exposure. Chemical injuries of the eye are true emergencies requiring a good history, prompt clinical evaluation, and treatment. Chemical eye injury, eye chemical burn, ocular chemical burn. Workplace eye injuries by the numbers 20140303 ishn. Coordination with physician, surgeon and psychiatrist may be required. Chemical alkali and acid injury of the conjunctiva and cornea is a true ocular emergency and requires immediate intervention. Patients transported by air may have special requirements. Preventing workplace eye injuries american academy of. A read is counted each time someone views a publication summary such as the title, abstract, and list of authors, clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the fulltext. The eyerelated visit rate for a medical condition was highest among those aged.1458 608 204 51 1114 457 443 1508 584 1572 651 106 225 1065 1563 1543 1138 1197 757 1201 371 107 590 237 1470 491 1446 1387 541 1399 278 1427 1312 665 366